TitleMetabolic characterization of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutant and IDH wildtype gliomaspheres uncovers cell type-specific vulnerabilities.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsGarrett M, Sperry J, Braas D, Yan W, Le TM, Mottahedeh J, Ludwig K, Eskin A, Qin Y, Levy R, Breunig JJ, Pajonk F, Graeber TG, Radu CG, Christofk H, Prins RM, Lai A, Liau LM, Coppola G, Kornblum HI
JournalCancer Metab
Volume6
Pagination4
Date Published2018
ISSN2049-3002
Abstract

Background: There is considerable interest in defining the metabolic abnormalities of IDH mutant tumors to exploit for therapy. While most studies have attempted to discern function by using cell lines transduced with exogenous IDH mutant enzyme, in this study, we perform unbiased metabolomics to discover metabolic differences between a cohort of patient-derived IDH1 mutant and IDH wildtype gliomaspheres.

Methods: Using both our own microarray and the TCGA datasets, we performed KEGG analysis to define pathways differentially enriched in IDH1 mutant and IDH wildtype cells and tumors. Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry analysis with labeled glucose and deoxycytidine tracers was used to determine differences in overall cellular metabolism and nucleotide synthesis. Radiation-induced DNA damage and repair capacity was assessed using a comet assay. Differences between endogenous IDH1 mutant metabolism and that of IDH wildtype cells transduced with the IDH1 (R132H) mutation were also investigated.

Results: Our KEGG analysis revealed that IDH wildtype cells were enriched for pathways involved in de novo nucleotide synthesis, while IDH1 mutant cells were enriched for pathways involved in DNA repair. LC-MS analysis with fully labeled C-glucose revealed distinct labeling patterns between IDH1 mutant and wildtype cells. Additional LC-MS tracing experiments confirmed increased de novo nucleotide synthesis in IDH wildtype cells relative to IDH1 mutant cells. Endogenous IDH1 mutant cultures incurred less DNA damage than IDH wildtype cultures and sustained better overall growth following X-ray radiation. Overexpression of mutant IDH1 in a wildtype line did not reproduce the range of metabolic differences observed in lines expressing endogenous mutations, but resulted in depletion of glutamine and TCA cycle intermediates, an increase in DNA damage following radiation, and a rise in intracellular ROS.

Conclusions: These results demonstrate that IDH1 mutant and IDH wildtype cells are easily distinguishable metabolically by analyzing expression profiles and glucose consumption. Our results also highlight important differences in nucleotide synthesis utilization and DNA repair capacity that could be exploited for therapy. Altogether, this study demonstrates that IDH1 mutant gliomas are a distinct subclass of glioma with a less malignant, but also therapy-resistant, metabolic profile that will likely require distinct modes of therapy.

DOI10.1186/s40170-018-0177-4
Alternate JournalCancer Metab
PubMed ID29692895
PubMed Central IDPMC5905129
Grant ListR56 NS052563 / NS / NINDS NIH HHS / United States
R33 CA202900 / CA / NCI NIH HHS / United States
R01 NS052563 / NS / NINDS NIH HHS / United States
P30 NS062691 / NS / NINDS NIH HHS / United States
R01 CA200234 / CA / NCI NIH HHS / United States
R01 CA187678 / CA / NCI NIH HHS / United States
P50 CA211015 / CA / NCI NIH HHS / United States